Food References

Food NutritionDry Weight MeasureLiquid Weight MeasurementsBaking Ingredient ConversionsBaking Dish and Pan Size ConversionsCan Sizes and Equivalents - Can Sizes by Weight and NumberFood Storage - Shelf Life of Food - Refrigerator and Freezer Storage ChartNon-Alcoholic SubstitutionsOven TemperaturesWater TemperaturesBaked Goods - Internal TemperaturesCandy Sugar SyrupVegetables Internal TemperaturesBeef Veal Lamb Internal TemperaturesFish Seafood Internal TemperaturesPork Internal TemperaturesPoultry Internal TemperaturesMiscellaneous Internal Temperatures

Food Nutrition

Alcoholic Beverages
ItemServing SizeCarbohydrates GramsFat GramsCalories
Beer, light12-ounce can or bottle6.90110
Beer, regular12-ounce can or bottle11.90144
Beer, non-alcoholic12-ounce can or bottle12 to 16 (depending on brand)060 to 90 (depending on brand)
Cocktails: (carbohydrates depend on recipe used)
Alexander2.5 fluid ounces180
Bacardi2.5 fluid ounces120
Black Russian3 fluid ounces250
Bloody Mary5 fluid ounce116
Daiquiri2 fluid ounces120
Gin Rickey7 fluid ounces115
Gin & Tonic7.5 fluid ounces170
Grasshopper2.25 fluid ounces165
Mai Tai4.5 fluid ounces310
Manhattan2.5 fluid ounces130
Margarita3 fluid ounces155
Martini2.5 fluid ounces137
Mint Julep10 fluid ounces215
Old Fashioned4 fluid ounces180
Pina Colada4.5 fluid ounces260
Screwdriver7 fluid ounces175
Singapora Sling8 fluid ounces230
Tom Collins7.5 fluid ounces120
Whisky Sour3 fluid ounces125
White Russian3.5 fluid ounces270
Distilled gin, rum, vodka, & whiskey (80 proof)1 ounce0065
Liqueur, coffee (53 proof)1 ounce16.3.1117
Liqueur, creme de menthe (72 proof)1 ounce14.1125
Wine, red1 wine glass (4 ounces)1.7091
Wine, white1 wine glass (4 ounces)1.7086
Wine, rose1 wine glass (4 ounces)3.1090
Wine, dessert3 ounces10.040130
Wine, port2 ounces6086

ItemServing SizeCarbohydrates GramsFat GramsCalories
Beef Shank, shank crosscuts, trimmed to 1/4-inch fat (raw)Beef Shank, shank crosscuts, trimmed to 1/4-inch fat (cooked)1 beef shank002.828.550510
Frankfurter, Beef1 each1.416.8184
Ground Beef, extra lean (raw)
1 ounce
Ground Beef, extra lean (raw)16 ounces (1 pound)076.8
Ground Beef, lean (raw)1 ounce05.9
Ground Beef, lean (raw)16 ounces (1 pound)094.4
Ground Beef, regular (raw)1 ounce07.5
Ground Beef, regular (raw)16 ounces (1 pound)0120
Ground Beef, extra lean (broiled or grilled))4 ounces (1/4 pound)018.5
Ground Beef, lean (broiled or grilled)4 ounces (1/4 pound)020.9
Ground Beef, regular (broiled or grilled)4 ounces (1/4 pound)023.5328
Pepperoni1 ounce
1 slice
Flank Steak (broiled or grilled)1 ounce01.743
Porterhouse Steak, prime grade (broiled or grilled)1 ounce
8 ounces
Sirloin Steak, lean (broiled or grilled)1 ounce
8 ounces
Tenderloin Steak or Roast (broiled or grilled)1 ounce
8 ounces
T-Bone Steak (broiled or grilled)1 ounce
8 ounces
ItemServing SizeCarbohydrates GramsFat GramsCalories
Bagel, plain
1 bagel71
Bagel, cinnamon raisin
1 bagel76
Bagel, egg
1 bagel69
Bagel, onion
1 bagel74
Bagel, poppyseed
1 bagel68
Bagel, sesame1 bagel69
Bagel, whole wheat1 bagel704.5360
Breads, all types, regular sliced1 slice (1 ounce)13160 to 80
Bread, French and Sourdough1 slice (1 ounce)16.6188
Bread, very thin sliced (diet)1 slice8.540
Bread Crumbs, plain (dry)1 cup231120
Eggroll Wrapper1 each4.5023
English Muffin, plain (inc. sourdough)1 each271135
Fillo (Phyllo) Sheets1 sheet (9"x14" sheet)
5 sheets
Panko breading1/2 cup1110
Pita Bread, white, whole wheat1 (6.5" diameter)282150
Spring Roll Skins or Wrappers (Rice Paper)2 ounces411200
Won Ton Wrapper1 each4.6.123
ItemServing SizeCarbohydrates GramsFat GramsCalories
All Bran1/2 cup.979.2
Cheerios1 cup1.8109.5
Corn Flakes1 cup24.2100
Corn Grits, white1/4 cup uncooked
1 cup cooked
Frosted Flakes3/4 cup.2119.2
Grape Nuts1/2 cup1.1208
Kashi, puffed3/4 cup190
Rice Krispies1 1/4 cups.4124.4
Rolled Oats (Oatmeal), quick1 cup cooked
1 cup uncooked
Raisin Bran1 cup1.5186
Shredded Wheat2 biscuits.6156.4
ItemServing SizeCarbohydrates GramsFat GramsCalories
America, processed1 ounce.59106
Blue Cheese, Danish1 ounce.78.1100
Brie1 ounce.1785
Camembert1 ounce.111.9122
Cheddar, regular1 ounce.49.4114
Cheddar, low fat1 ounce0580
Cottage Cheese, regular1/2 cup45117
Cottage Cheese, 2% low-fat1/2 cup42100
Cottage Cheese, fat-free1/2 cup3070
Cream Cheese, regular1 ounce
3-ounce package
Cream Cheese, light or low fat1 ounce2565
Cream Cheese, fat-free1 ounce2027
Edam Cheese1 ounce.47.9101
Feta Cheese, cow or sheep1 ounce1.2675
Fontina Cheese1 ounce.48.8110
Goat Cheese (Chevre)1 ounce7.188
Gorgonzota1 ounce9.6109
Gouda1 ounce.68101
Gruyere1 ounce
1 cup, diced
Havarti1 ounce.310.4117
Laughing Cow, Creamy Swiss, Light1 wedge235
Monterey Jack1 ounce.29106
Mozzarella, whole milk1 ounce.66.180
Mozzarella, part skim, low moisture1 ounce.84.979.4
Mozzarella, Fresh1 ounce0570
Parmesan Cheese1 ounce.97.3111
Parmesan Cheese, grated1 tablespoon
1 ounce
Provolone1 ounce.67.7100
Ricotta, whole milk1 ounce.93.749
Roquefort1 ounce.68.9102
Swiss1 ounce17100
Tofu, soft (silken)Tofu, firm (cotton, brick, or momen)1 ounce
1 ounce
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ItemServing SizeCarbohydrates GramsFat GramsCalories
Chocolate, 62%, semi-sweet1 ounce17
Chocolate, dark, 70%, bittersweet1 ounce14
Chocolate, extra dark, 82%1 ounce12
Chocolate, white1 ounce15
Chocolate, unsweetened (baking)1 ounce9
Chocolate Chips, semi-sweet1 tablespoon104.580
Chocolate Syrup, fudge-type Chocolate Syrup, light2 tablespoons
2 tablespoons
Hot Fudge Topping, regular2 tablespoons144100
Cocoa, dry powder, unsweetened1 tablespoon
1 cup
Coffee Drinks - Starbucks Coffee
ItemServing SizeCarbohydrates GramsFat GramsCalories
Starbucks, Carmel Frappuccino Coffee, no whip16 fluid ounces280
Starbucks, Carmel Frappuccino Coffee, whip16 fluid ounces430
Starbucks, Carmel Frappuccino Coffee only16 fluid ounces260
Starbucks, Caffe Latte, non-fat milk16 fluid ounces165
Starbucks, Caffe Latte, whole milk16 fluid ounces14260
Starbucks, Caffe au Lait, whole milk16 fluid ounces8140
Starbucks, Caffe au Lait, non-fat milk16 fluid ounces090
Starbucks, Caffe Americano, whole milk16 fluid ounces015
Starbucks, Caffe Mocha, whole milk, whip16 fluid ounces22400
Starbucks, Caffe Mocha, non-fat milk, whip16 fluid ounces12330
Starbucks, Caffe Mocha, non-fat milk, no whip16 fluid ounces2220
Starbucks, Cappuccino, whole milk16 fluid ounces8150
Starbucks, Cappuccino, non-fat milk16 fluid ounces0100
Condiments  - Cooking and Baking Ingredients
ItemServing SizeCarbohydrates GramsFat GramsCalories
Baking Powder, double-actingBaking Soda1 teaspoon
1 teaspoon
Beef Broth or Stock, fat-free1 cup016.8
Cornstarch1 tablespoon7.3030
Cream of Mushroom Soup, 98% fat-free
1/2 cup
Cream of Mushroom Soup, regular1/2 cup96100
Cream of Tartar1 teaspoon.602
Gelatin, unflavored1 package (Knox)0025
Gelatin, flavored, sugar-free1 (.6-ounce) pkg006
Horseradish. prepared1 teaspoon005
Ketchup (Catsup)1 tablespoon1 cup4640015240
Mayonnaise, regular1 tablespoon011100
Mayonnaise, light 1 tablespoon1550
Mayonnaise, reduced fat1 tablespoon2020
Mayonnaise, fat free1 tablespoon2011
Mayonnaise, Weight Watchers, light1 tablespoon1550
Mustard, Dijon1 tablespoon1018
Mustard, yellow1 tablespoon1.110
Olives, Kalamata, pitted4 olives24.545
Olives, Spanish, green with pimiento2 olives1115
Onion Powder1 teaspoon1.8
Onion Salt1 teaspoon.4
Onion Soup Mix, dry1 package (4 tablespoons)242118
Nori, toasted seaweed1 sheet2010
Pickle, bread & butter, slices1 ounce4.7
Pickle, dill1 medium (3 3/4")2.7
Pickle, sweet1 large (3")11.1
Pickle, relish sweet1 tablespoon5.1.121
Salsa2 tablespoons
1 cup
Sour Cream, regular2 tablespoons2661
Sour Cream, light2 tablespoons2340
Sour Cream, fat-free1 tablespoon
2 tablespoons
Soy Sauce1 tablespoon1/4 cup13.20.11135
Vanilla Extract1 teaspoon.3010
Vinegar, cider 1 tablespoon.402
Vinegar, balsamic 1 tablespoon.605
Vinegar, raspberry1 tablespoon.707
Vinegar, rice1 tablespoon.602
Wasabi, powder1/4 ounce4.9024
Wheat Germ1 2/3 tablespoons8150
Worcestershire Sauce1 teaspoon115
Yeast, Bakers, active-dry1/4 ounce2.7.320
Yeast, Bakers, rapid rise or instant1/4 ounce3020
ItemServing SizeCarbohydrates GramsFat GramsCalories
Graham2 full crackers (8 squares)
1 cup crushed
Melba Toast, plain1 round3.411.7
Norwegian Flat Bread1 each.121.2
Rye Krisp2 triple crackers11.145
Saltines5 crackers
1 oyster cracker
1 cup crushed
Wasa rye crisp bread1 each.136.6
Dairy and Non-Dairy Milks
ItemServing SizeCarbohydrates GramsFat GramsCalories
Almond Milk, low fat1 cup82.560
Almond Milk, light vanilla1 cup71.570
Buttermilk, dry1 tablespoon3.2.425
Buttermilk, 1% fat1 cup11.7299
Chocolate Milk, regular1 cup268210
Chocolate Milk, low fat 2%1 cup265180
Chocolate Milk, low fat 1%1 cup263160
Chocolate Milk, fat free1 cup262150
Coconut Milk, regular, canned1 tablespoon.43.230
Coconut Milk, light, canned1 tablespoon.1110
Coconut Milk, bottled1 cup0580
Condensed Milk, sweetened1 ounce
1/3 cup
Cream, half & half1 cup10.4
Cream, 25% fat1 cup8.3
Cream, whipping, heavy1 cup6.688821
Evaporated Milk, whole1/2 cup1210170
Evaporated Milk, skim1/2 cup14.3100
Goat Milk, whole1 ounce1 cup1.310.91.210.120168
Milk, whole1 cup11.4
Milk, 2% fat1 cup11.7
Milk, 1% fat1 cup11.7
Milk, fat-free or skim1 cup11.9.486
Sour Cream, regular2 tablespoons (1 ounce)2661
Sour Cream, light2 tablespoons (1 ounce)2340
Sour Cream, fat-free2 tablespoons (1 ounce)2020
Soy Milk1 cup4.34.679
Yogurt, Plain (regular)1 cup10.67139
Yogurt, Plain (low fat)1 cup164144
Yogurt, Plain (non fat)1 cup160127
ItemServing SizeCarbohydrates GramsFat GramsCalories
Egg, large114.570
Egg, medium114.570
Egg, small103.560
Egg White, large1 egg white.3017
Egg Whites1 cup egg whites2.50121
Egg Yolk, large1.3559
Egg Substitute, liquid1/4 cup (equals 1 egg)1025
Fats, Oils & Spreads
ItemServing SizeCarbohydrates GramsFat GramsCalories
Butter, regular (salted or unsalted)1 teaspoon
1 tablespoon
1/4 cup
1/2 cup -1 stick or cube (4 oz)
Butter, whipped1 tablespoon0867
Ghee1 ounce028249
Lard1 tablespoon
1 cup
Nutella2 tablespoons2211200
Oils - canola, corn, olive, safflower, soybean, sesame, grapeseed1 teaspoon
1 tablespoon
1/4 cup
Oils - almond, walnut, hazelnut, sesame, truffle (white & black)1 tablespoon
1/4 cup
Peanut Butter, smooth2 tablespoons6.617188
Peanut Butter,chunk style2 tablespoons716188
Peanut Butter, reduced fat2 tablespoons612180
Shortening, vegetable, regular, or butter flavor1 tablespoon012.8110
ItemServing SizeCarbohydrates GramsFat GramsCalories
All-Purpose Flour, unsifted1 cup (120 gm)
1/4 cup (30 gm)
1 tablespoon (7.5 gm)
Amaranth Flour1/4 cup202.5120
Barley Flour1/4 cup230110
Bread Flour1 cup992495
Buckwheat Flour1/4 cup211100
Cake Flour1 cup880400
Chickpea Flour or Garbanzo Flour1/4 cup182110
Coconut Flour2 tablespoons8260
Corn Flour1/4 cup221110
Cracked Wheat1/4 cup29.5140
Millet Flour1/4 cup221110
Oat Flour1/2 cup253160
Potato Starch1 tablespoon10040
Quinoa Flour1/4 cup181.5110
Rice Flours
Sweet Rice Flour (also called Mochik)1/4 cup24.6180
Brown Rice Flour1/4 cup301140
White Rice Flour1/4 cup32.6150
Rye Flour, light1/4 cup21.5100
Rye flour, dark1/4 cup211110
Semolina Flour3 tablespoons
1/4 cup
Soy Flour, low fat1 cup33.42.4287
Spelt Flour1/4 cup251130
Tapioca Flour1/4 cup260100
Teff Flour1/4 cup371180
Whole Grain Flour1/4 cup872407
Whole Wheat Pastry Flour1/4 cup23.5110
Fruits and Fruit Juices
ItemServing SizeCarbohydrates GramsFat GramsCalories
Apple, fresh or raw1 medium21.1.181
Apples, dried1 ring
1 ounce
1 cup
Apples, freeze dried25 pieces (1/3 cup)80
Apple cider, canned or bottled6 ounces20085
Apple juice, unsweetened6 ounces21.7087
Applesauce, canned, unsweetened1/2 cup15.256
Apricots, fresh3 medium11.8.4
Apricots, halves, dried1 half
1 ounce
1 cup
Apricot juice/nectar1 cup120
Avocado, fresh (medium-size avocado without seed and skin)1 ounce or 1/5 avocado
2 tablespoons (2 or 3 slices)
1/4 medium 1 medium
1 cup, pureed


Banana, fresh1 medium
1 large
1/2 cup mashed
Banana chips22 chips (1 ounce)
1 cup
Blackberries, fresh1/2 cup9.2.337
Blueberries, fresh1/2 cup41
Blueberries, dried and sweetened1/4 cup (75 berries)10.2.3150
Boysenberries, fresh1/2 cup9.2.337
Cantaloupe, fresh1/2 medium
1/2 cup cubed
Cherries, sweet w/o pits, fresh Cherries, sour w/o pits, freshCherries, dried1/2 cup 1/1 cup1/3 cup (27 cherries)129.4.7 .252 39160
Cherries, dried, tart1/4 cup430140
Cherry, Maraschino1 each208
Cranberries, whole, fresh1/2 cup6.123
Cranberry Juice, cocktail6 ounces260110
Cranberry Sauce, canned, sweetened1/2 cup53.70209
Currents, dried1 cup1070408
Dates, pitted, fresh1 cup pitted & chopped1 date133.66.2.7050223
Figs, freshFigs, dried1 small 1 medium 1 large10 figs81012122.20 0 02.230 37 47477
Grapefruit, pink or red1/2 medium 1/2 cup sections w/juice1611.1.1 .160 43
Grapefruit Juice, fresh6 ounces17.172
Grapes, fresh1 grape1 cup.415.80.3262
Grape Juice, canned or bottled1 cup37.8.2142
Honeydew Melon, fresh1/10 medium1/2 cup cubed11.
Kiwifruit, fresh1 medium1 large11.313.5.3.44655
Lemon, freshLemon Peel (Zest)Lemon Juice, fresh1 medium1 large1 teaspoon1 tablespoon1 tablespoon1/2 cup5.47.8.311.310.5.2.30000172500430
LimeLime Juice, fresh1 medium1 tablespoon1/2 cup7.11.411.200020433
Mango, freshMango, dried unsweetened1 medium1/2 cup sliced6 slices35.214.6 .2135 54106
Nectarines, fresh1 medium1/2 cup sliced168.1.6.36734
Orange, navel, freshOrange Peel, zest1 medium1 teaspoon1 tablespoon15.
Orange Juice, freshOrange Juice, fresh Orange Juice, canned or bottled6 ounces1/4 cup 6 ounces19.36.418.4.4.1 .38327.6 78
Papaya, freshPapaya Nectar, canned or bottledPapaya, dried1 medium1/2 cup cubed6 ounces2 2 spears (1.5 oz)29.86.927.2.4.1311727107140
Peach, fresh1 medium9.7.158
Peach, canned in light syrupPeach, canned in waterhalveshalves187.5.1.16829
Pear, fresh1 medium or large25.1.798
Pear, canned in light syruphalves19.172
Pear Nectarhalves16.162
Persimmon1 (2 1/2" diameter)0.3118
Pineapple, fresh, trimmed1 slice (3/4" thick) 1/2 cup diced1 whole pineapple10.619.659.6.1 .2.640 74227
Pineapple canned water-packed Pineapple, dried1 cup (crushed, sliced or chunks) 1 slice or ring1 slice or ring1 ounce20.43.918.218.2.2 .04.17.1779 156969
Pineapple Juice, canned or bottled6 ounces25.8.2104
Plum, fresh, pitted1 ounce3.7.216
Pomegranate, freshPomegranate Juice1 pomegranate (3-3/8" diameter) 8 ounces363800105150
Prickly Pear, fresh1 medium9.9.542
Prunes, dried10 each52.7.4201
Prune Juice, canned6 ounces33.5.1136
Raisins, seedless1/2 cup (not packed) 1/2 cup (packed)1 tablespoon57.565.67.2.3 .4.04219 24927.4
Raspberries, freshRaspberry Juice, canned or bottled1/2 cup8 ounces7.130.3031120
Strawberries, fresh8 berries1/2 cup5.20.35023
Tangerine, fresh1 medium9.4.237
Watermelon, fresh1/2 cup diced5.7.325
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Grains and Seeds
ItemServing SizeCarbohydrates GramsFat GramsCalories
Amaranth Grain1/4 cup323182
Barley, raw1 ounce1 cup20.8135.2.74.2100651
Buckwheat Berries1/2 cup291151
Bulgur (Tabbouleh)1 cup dry 1 cup cooked106.233.81.9 .4479 152
Caraway Seeds1 teaspoon 1 tablespoon1.13.3.3 17 22.3
Chia Seeds1 tablespoon6565
Couscous1 cup dry 1 cup cooked142.541.61.2 .3692 201
Farro, raw1/2 cup341.5170
Flax Seeds, raw1/2 cup2232.6414
Fennel Seeds1 teaspoon 1 tablespoon1.13.3 .97 20
Poppy Seeds1 teaspoon 1 tablespoon121.3 3.914.9 46.9
Sesame Seeds, toasted1 teaspoon 1 tablespoon.92.11.5 4.510 52
Sunflower Seeds, roasted, hulled and saltedSunflower Seeds, oil roasted with salt1 ounce1 ounce3.667.41487166
Wheat Berries, raw1/2 cup291151
Herbs & Spices
ItemServing SizeCarbohydrates GramsFat GramsCalories
Allspice, ground1 teaspoon1 tablespoon1.
Basil, FreshBasil, Dried2 tablespoons5 leaves1 teaspoon.1.1.9000112
Bay Leaf1 teaspoon1 tablespoon.21.40.226
Capers, drained1 tablespoon002
Cardamon1 teaspoon1.4.16
Chili Powder1 teaspoon1 tablespoon1.
Cinnamon, ground1 teaspoon1 tablespoon1.
Cloves, ground1 teaspoon1 tablespoon1.44.41.3721
Coriander Leaf (Cilantro, Chinese Parsley), driedCoriander Seed1 teaspoon1 tablespoon1 tablespoon.
Cumin Seeds1 tablespoon2.71.323
Curry Powder1 teaspoon1 tablespoon1.
Dill Weed, driedDill Weed, freshDill Seeds1 teaspoon1 tablespoon1 cup sprigs1 tablespoon.
Garlic PowderGarlic Salt1 teaspoon1 tablespoon1 teaspoon1.
Ginger, ground1 teaspoon1 tablespoon1.
Ginger Root1 ounce 5 slices4.31.7.2 .120 8
Marjoram, dried1 teaspoon1 tablespoon.41.0125
Mint, fresh1 mint leaf000
Nutmeg, ground1 teaspoon1 tablespoon1.
Oregano, dried1 teaspoon1 tablespoon13.1.3618
Paprika1 teaspoon1 tablespoon1.
Parsley, freshParsley, dried10 sprigs 1/2 cup, chopped1 tablespoon.
Pepper, Black, groundPepper, Red Or Cayenne, groundPepper, White1 tablespoon1 tablespoon1 tablespoon4.
Rosemary, freshRosemary, dried1 teaspoon1 tablespoon1 teaspoon1 tablespoon.
Saffron1 teaspoon.502
Sage, ground1 teaspoon1 tablespoon.
Salt, iodized or non-iodized1 teaspoon1 tablespoon000000
Thyme, driedThyme, fresh1 teaspoon1 tablespoon1 teaspoon.
Turmeric, ground1 teaspoon1.4.28
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ItemServing SizeCarbohydrates GramsFat GramsCalories
Lamb, blade chop1 chop06128
Lamb, ground4 ounces026.5318.7
Lamb, loin chop (lean)3 ounces05.3124
Lamb, rib chop  (lean)3 ounces07136
Lamb, shoulder (lean)3 ounces04.9116
Meats, Misc.
ItemServing SizeCarbohydrates GramsFat GramsCalories
Braunschweiger (liver sausage)1 ounce19100
Deer, Tenderloin3 ounces02127
Elk, Tenderloin3 ounces02.9138
Pepperoni1 ounces1.111.3130
Polish Kielbasa (Healthy Choice)2 ounces62.580
Smoked Sausage (Healthy Choice)2 ounces62.580
Smoked Kielbasa (Polish, Turkey & Beef)2 ounces2.29.9127
ItemServing SizeCarbohydrates GramsFat GramsCalories
Almonds, whole, dry roasted1 each 1 ounce 1 cup, ground1 cup, whole.26.120.631.5 13.8 4770.76 161 546822
Almonds, sliced Almonds, slivered1 cup 1 cup19.923.445.5 53.4529 621
Brazil Nuts, whole, shelled1 ounce (6-8 nuts)1 cup3.5171993183918
Cashews, dry roasted1 ounce 1 cup (halves & whole)94513 63162 796
Coconut, fresh, raw1 ounce1 cup, shredded4.3129.527100283
Filberts (hazelnuts), wholeFilberts (hazelnuts), chopped1 each 1 ounce 1 cup1 cup4.420.717.6.8 18 84728.7 179 853727
Macadamia, whole & halves1 ounce (10-12 nuts)3.921199
Peanuts, cooked & shelled1 ounce 1/2 cup6126.2 3690.2 414
Peanuts, dry roasted1 ounce514160
Peanut Butter, creamy or smooth2 tablespoons6.616189
Peanut Butter, reduced-fat2 tablespoons152.5100
Pecan, halves1 ounce (20 nuts)520.4190
Pine Nuts1 ounce 1 tablespoon41.414 5146 51
Pistachios1 ounce (47 nuts)1 cup731.813.761.9164739
Walnuts1 ounce (14 halves) 1 cup (50 halves) 1 cup (chopped or pieces)5.218.32217.5 62 74142 784.8770
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Pasta and Rice - NOTE: 2 ounces dried pasta = 1 cup cooked pasta
ItemServing SizeCarbohydrates GramsFat GramsCalories
Chinese Noodles, Mung Beans (Cellophane or Long Rice)1 cup cooked43.8.35192
Noodles (Japanese soba)Noodles (Japanese rice)Noodles (Japanese somen)2 ounces dry1 cup cooked1 cup cooked2 ounces dry1 cup cooked4624.443.842.
Pasta (egg noodles, linguine, macaroni, spaghetti, spials, etc.), semolinaPasta, whole wheatPasta, cornPasta, KamutPasta, QuinoaPasta, RicePasta, Soba (buckwheat)Pasta, Spelt2 ounces dry (appx. 1/2 cup)2 ounces dry (appx. 1/2 cup)2 ounces dry (appx. 1/2 cup)2 ounces dry (appx. 1/2 cup)2 ounces dry (appx. 1/2 cup)2 ounces dry (appx. 1/2 cup)2 ounces dry (appx. 1/2 cup)2 ounces dry (appx. 1/2 cup)413551.4383544374011.511.52011.5200180214210180200190190
Rice, arborio3 tablespoons dry1 cup cooked3453.4.4.5150241
Rice, brown long-grain1 cup dry 1 cup cooked142.944.85.4 1.8684 216
Rice, white long grain (parboiled or instant)1 cup dry 1 cup cooked79.435.1.3 .3360 161
Rice (glutinous or Sushi)1 cup dry 1 cup cooked151.150.81 .5685 234
Rice, whole grain medley (brown & wild)1 cup cooked412210
Rice, wild1 cup raw 1 cup cooked119.8351.7 .6571 166
ItemServing SizeCarbohydrates GramsFat GramsCalories
Bacon, cured, raw3 medium slices1 thick slice (1.3 ounce).45.2530.617.2311174
Bacon, cooked1 thin slice (.2 ounce)1 thick slice (.4 ounce).
Bacon BitsBacon Bits, Imitation1 tablespoon1 teaspoon022.43026
Bacon, Canadian style1-ounce slice (unheated).5245
Bologna, pork1 slice (1 ounce)1980
Bratwurst (fully cooked)2-ounce link116170
Ham, cured (butt, lean)3.5 ounces3.35159
Ham, fresh (lean)1 ounce slice.62.345
Luncheon meat, beef/pork1 ounce slice6.1176
Pork Chop, cooked and trimmed of fat    center cut   top loin chops   rib chops2.5 ounces 3 ounces 3 ounces0007.5 6.9 8.3166 171 186
Pork Sausage1 link (raw)1 patty (raw)003.77.74492
Pork Roast, cooked and boneless    Loin (tenderlooin) Roast    Rib Roast3 ounces 3 ounces005.7 8.6165 182
Spare Ribs, roasted6 medium035396
Tenderloin Roast (lean and roasted)3 ounces 1 pound004.1 21.8130 740.8
ItemServing SizeCarbohydrates GramsFat GramsCalories
Chicken Broth or Stock, fat-free1 cup0.55
Chicken Breast (w/o skin)1/2 breast03142
Chicken Leg (w/o skin)1 leg or drumstick0276
Chicken Meat, roasted1 cup (chopped or diced)08241
Chicken, whole, meat only, raw2 pounds0241006
Chicken Thigh (w/o skin)1 thigh06109
Chicken Hotdog19116
Turkey breast, processed Turkey breast, BBQ Turkey breast, roasted Turkey breast, smokedTurkey breast, white meat, no skin Turkey, dark meat, no skin1 ounce 3.5 ounce 3.5 ounce 3.5 ounce3 ounce3 ounce0000002 5 3 45751 135 115 120120140
Turkey hot dog18102
Turkey, ground4 ounces 1 pound9.4 37.5169.9 675.9
Turkey Kielbasa, 95% fat free2 ounces370
ItemServing SizeCarbohydrates GramsFat GramsCalories
Anchovy Fillets5 medium each (appx .7 oz)0242
Caviar1 ounce4.472
Clams, raw1 each small 1 each medium 1 cup w/liquid 9 large or 20 small 1 pound w/shells.1 .1 2.2 1.7 .76.7 10.7 168 133 50.3
Clams, canned1 cup w/liquid3.1236.8
Clams Juice, canned or bottled1 tablespoon 1 cup00 00 4.8
Cod3.5 ounces.385
Crab Meat, cooked(Dungeness, Blue, King & Lump)3 ounces 1 pound 1 whole crab.63.31 4.4 1.690 391 139.7
Flounder/Sole3.5 ounces.568
Grouper3.5 ounces187
Halibut3 ounces 6 ounces 1/2 fillet1.9 3.8 4.793.5 187 224
Lobster1  ounce 3.5 ounces1 233 91
Mussels, w/o shells1 ounce 4 ounces.6 1.924.4 73
Oysters, Pacific, medium size, raw1 medium 4 ounces 10-ounce jar2481.2 2.5540.5 70140
Oysters, Eastern raw1 medium.28.2
Red Snapper3.5 ounces293
Salmon, Atlantic Salmon, Atlantic3 ounces 1 pound 2 pounds9.2 34.8 69.6155.6 612.5 1225
Salmon, Chinook Samon, Coho Salmon, Chum Salmon, Sockeye3 ounces 3 ounces 3 ounces 3 ounces8.9 5 3.2 7.3153 124 102 142.8
Salmon, smoked3.5 ounces9176
Salmon, pink canned3 ounces 1 can (14 3/4-oz)5 27.4118 630.5
Scallops, raw2 large or 5 small 3 ounces 1/2 pound.2 .6 1.626.4 74.8 199.4
Shrimp or Prawns1 small each 1 medium each 1 large 3 ounces.1 .1 .1 1.55.3 6.4 7.4 90
Shrimp, canned & drained1 ounce.325
Trout, Rainbow3.5 ounces11195
Tuna, fresh3.5 ounces8177
Tuna, solid white, canned in water2 ounces 3-ounce can or pouch 7-ounce can or pouch0001 1 270 90 180
ItemServing SizeCarbohydrates GramsFat GramsCalories
Beef Jerky1 piece2582
Popcorn, 94% fat free (average most brands)1/2 (1.5 oz) microwave package1 (3 oz) microwave package28562.55130260
Popcorn, popped without oil or butter1 ounce dry or 1 quart popped201109
Sugar and Sweeteners
ItemServing SizeCarbohydrates GramsFat GramsCalories
Agave Syrup1 tablespoon1 ounce1621006080
Corn Syrup, light2 tablespoons0120
Honey1 tablespoon16060
Molasses, dark, unsulphured1 tablespoon16060
Sugar, granulated1 teaspoon (level) 1 tablespoon 1 cup1 cube1 packet (2 ounces)411.91992.560 0 00 015 46 7709 23
Sugar, Bakers or superfine1 teaspoon015
Sugar, brown1 teaspoon 1 tablespoon 1/4 cup, packed 1/2 cup, packed41248960 0 0 017 41 164 328
Sugar, powdered or confectioners, unsifted1 tablespoon 1 cup81190 .131 462
Syrup, Maple1 tablespoon1 cup132160150840
Travia1 teaspoon300
Xylitol1/4 cup400
Sushi Rolls NOTE:  As with any hand-crafted food, a similar sushi item made by two different sushi chefs may have different proportions of ingredients, and therefore different values for calories, fat, and carbohydrates.
ItemServing SizeCarbohydrates GramsFat GramsCalories
Maki Rolls (Typical cylindrical rolls of sushi) - Estimates are per entire roll, not each individual piece.
Avocado Roll1 roll (appx 6 to 7 pieces)285.7140
California Roll1 roll (appx 6 to 7 pieces)387255
Cucumber Roll1 roll (appx 6 to 7 pieces)300136
Philadelphia Roll (salmon, cream cheese, avocado)1 roll (appx 6 to 7 pieces)305319
Salmon & Avocado1 roll (appx 6 to 7 pieces)428.7304
Shrimp Tempura roll1 roll (appx 6 to 7 pieces)6421508
Spicy Tuna Roll1 roll (appx 6 to 7 pieces)2611290
Spider Roll (fried soft-shell crab):1 roll (appx 6 to 7 pieces)3812317
Nigiri sushi (Raw fish/seafood on top of small bed of rice) - Estimates are per piece.
Abalone Tuna1 piece over rice29.1145
Bluefin Tuna1 piece over rice8.2.750
Flounder1 piece over rice9.243
Octopus1 piece over rice8.9.353
Salmon1 piece over rice8.21.656
Salmon Roe1 piece over rice8.2.539
Sea Bass1 piece over rice8.2.341
Sea Urchin1 piece over rice8.21.164
Squid1 piece over rice8l7.243
Tamago (Japanese Omelet )1 piece over rice13.2275
Yellowtail Tuna1 piece over rice8.2851
Edamame (Green beans)1/2 cup93100
Pickled Ginger1 serving (.5 ounce)209
Toasted Nori Seaweed1 sheet2010
Miso Soup (no tofu added)1 cup4.9140
Seasoned Sushi Rice (cooked with rice vinegar and sugar)1 cup36.7.3170
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ItemServing SizeCarbohydrates GramsFat GramsCalories
Arugula, raw1 pound1 oz1/2 cup17.71.1000010472
Artichoke, globe1 medium (11.3 oz)1 large (14.3 oz)1317006076
Artichoke hearts, canned & marinated3.5 oz61.5225
Asparagus, raw1 pound4 spears8.
Beans, green (fresh)Beans, green (canned) & drained1/2 cup1/2 cup4.
Beans, black, canned1/2 cup 15-ounce can1734.5 1100 200
Beans, Garbanzo (chick peas), canned1/2 cup15.5-ounce can19381280160
Beans, Kidney, canned1/2 cup19.4104
Beans, White, canned1/2 cup 15-ounce can1938.51110220
Beans, lentils, cooked/boiled1/2 cup19.9.4115
Beans, Lima, cooked/boiled1/2 cup20.1.3104
Beans, refried, canned, regular1/2 cup211.2121
Beans, refried vegetarian1/2 cup15170
Beans, navy, cooked1/2 cup24.5129
Beets2 medium1/2 cup sliced16.
Broccoli1 medium stalk or spear1/2 cup chopped7.
Brussels Sprouts1 sprout1 ounce1 pound1.72.5440.6.101.36812195
Cabbage, Chinese raw1/2 cup shredded.8.15
Cabbage, green raw1/2 cup shredded1.9.128
Cabbage, red raw1/2 cup shredded2.1.110
Carrot, raw1 baby 1 medium1 large16700052530
Cauliflower1 medium head1 floweret301101443
Celery1 large stalk or rib 1 medium stalk or rib1 small stalk or rib2110 009 62
Chiles, green, canned (diced)2 tablespoons2010
Corn, fresh, yellow or white, raw1/2 cup kernels1 medium ear (90 g)1 large ear (146 g)14.61832.9136680155
Corn, cream style1/2 cup23.2.593
Cucumber1 medium to large8.8.439
Eggplant, raw1 medium6.4.127
Endive1/2 cup chopped1 head.817.2.11486
Garlic1 clove104
Greens (Collards), rawGreens (Collards), boiled drained1/2 cup chopped1/2 cup chopped1.33.9016 17
Jicama (Yam Bean Tuber)1 ounce1 pound untrimmed2.536.5.1 .312 170
Kale, raw, chopped1 cup1 ounce714003314
Lettuce, Bibb, Boston or ButterheadLettuce, IcebergLettuce, Coss or Romaine1 head 7.75 oz)1 medium head (1.25 lbs)1 inner leaf (.4 oz).411.
Mushrooms, (white or brown) raw5 medium 1/2 cup pieces or slices31.50 020 15
Mushrooms (Portabella) raw1 large cap3020
Mushroom Pieces, canned & drained1/2 cup4.421
Okra, rawOkra, cooked/boiled & drainedOkra, frozen8 pods8 pods10-oz package7.
Onion, yellow, white, red, & sweet (raw)1 large1 medium1/2 cup, chopped1 tablespoons, chopped1 thin slice1 medium slice (1/8")1 large slice (1/4")1597.
Onions, green (raw)1 cup chopped1 large1 medium (4 1/8" long)1 small (3" long)214107000064604428
Pearl Onions, raw2/3 cup8 ounces610003080
Onion, dried or dehydrated1 tablespoon1/4 cup4.211.70.11645
Peas, green, snap1/2 cup 1 cup10202 .567 110
Peas, black-eyed (cooked)1/2 cup.599
Peas, split peas1 cup dry411231
Peas, Snow or Sugar1/2 cup034
Pepper, bell1 medium2 tablespoons minced 1/2 cup chopped7.54.2 0 .235 1 12
Pepper, red roasted7 ounce jar4050
Pepper, chile Pepper, chipotle in adobe sauce, canned1 pepper2 tablespoons20.52015
Potato. baked with skin1 small (4.9 oz) 1 medium (6.1 oz) 1 large (10.5 oz)29.336.763.4.1 .2 .3128 161 278
Potato, Baby Red-Skinned, boiled4 ounces.186
Potato, sweet, baked with skin1 medium (6.3 oz)31.6.4136
Pumpkin, canned1/2 cup10.1.440
Radish1 medium (.2 oz)1 large (.3 oz)1/2 cup slices (2 oz) to 10
Rutabaga1 cup, cubed5.7.125
Sauerkraut, canned, solids & liquid16 ounce2020
Shallots, raw1 tablespoon1.707.2
Spinach, raw1 leaf (.4 oz)1 bunch (12 oz)01201278
Squash - Winter AcornAll varieties of winter squash (appx. values)1 (16-oz) whole winter squash1 cup cubes or sliced, raw28.417.8.74.1611980
Squash, Summer SquashAll varieties of summer squash (appx. values)1 (16-oz) whole squash1 cup cubes or sliced, raw18.710.9.28742
Squash, Zucchini, raw1 small (4 oz)1 medium (7 oz)1 large (11 oz)46.711.2.4.6193152
Tomato, whole, rawTomato, whole, rawTomato, Cherry, rawTomato, Cherry, rawTomato, Italian or Plum, raw1 medium1 large1 cherry5 each1 each68143.41 0002638 41013
Tomatoes, whole canned1/2 cup5.2.325
Tomatoes, diced or crushed1/2 cup14.5-ounce can - 3 (1/2 cup) servings28-ounce can - 7 (1/ 2 cup) servings0006672587.5175
Tomato Paste, canned1 ounce2 tablespoons6-ounce can5.36300002425125
Tomato Sauce, canned2 tablespoons 1 cup 6-ounce can0000 0 030 73.5 150
Tomato juice1 cup (8 ounces)10.2.241
Tomatillo1 medium1.98010.88
Vegetable Cocktail Juice (V8 Juice)1 cup5.5-ounce can117004630
Water chestnuts4 water chesthuts5-ounce can8.620003575

Dry Weight Measure

1/16 teaspoona dash
1/8 teaspoon or lessa pinch or 6 drops.5 ml
1/4 teaspoon15 drops1 ml
1/2 teaspoon30 drops2 ml
1 teaspoon1/3 tablespoon1/6 ounce5 ml
3 teaspoons1 tablespoon1/2 ounce14 grams
1 tablespoon3 teaspoons1/2 ounce14 grams
2 tablespoons1/8 cup1 ounce28 grams
4 tablespoons1/4 cup2 ounces56.7 grams
5 tablespoons pus 1 teaspoon1/3 cup2.6 ounces75.6 grams
8 tablespoons1/2 cup4 ounces1/4 pound113 grams
10 tablespoons plus 2 teaspoons2/3 cup5.2 ounces151 grams
12 tablespoons3/4 cup6 ounces.375 pound170 grams
16 tablespoons1 cup8 ounces.500 or 1/2 pound225 grams
32 tablespoons2 cups16 ounces1 pound454 grams
64 tablespoons4 cups or 1 quart32 ounces2 pounds907 grams

Liquid Volume Measurements

Jigger or measure1 1/2 or 1.5 fluid ounces3 tablespoons45 ml
1 cup8 fluid ounces1/2 pint16 tablespoons237 ml
2 cups16 fluid ounces1 pint32 tablespoons474 ml
4 cups32 fluid ounces1 quart64 tablespoons946 .4
2 pints32 fluid ounces1 quart4 cups946
4 quarts128 fluid ounces1 gallon16 cups3.785 liters
8 quarts256 fluid ounces or one peck2 gallons32 cups7.57 liters
4 pecksone bushel
dashless than 1/4 teaspoon

Baking Ingredient Conversions

1 cup all-purpose flour5142
1 cup granulated (white) sugar7198
1 cup firmly-packed brown sugar (light or dark)7198
1 cup powdered (confectioners') sugar4113
1 cup cocoa powder385
Butter (salted or unsalted)
4 tablespoons = 1/2 stick = 1/4 cup257
8 tablespoons = 1 stick =1/2 cup4113
16 tablespoons = 2 sticks = 1 cup8227

Baking Dish and Pan Size Conversions

Pan SizePan Substitution
3-cup Baking Dish or Pan:8" x 1-1/4 round pan
4-cup Baking Dish or Pan:1 (8") round cake pan
7-1/2" x 3" bundt tube pan
8" x 8" x 2" square pan
8 1/2" x 4-1/2" x 2-1/2" loaf pan
9" x 1-1/2" round layer cake pan
9" x 2" round pie plate (deep dish)
9" x 9" x 1-1/2" rectangular pan
10" x 1-1/2" round pie plate
11" x 7" x 2" rectangular pan
7-cup Baking dish or Pan:8" x 2" round cake pan
9" x 9" x 2" rectangular pan
8-cup Baking dish or Pan:8" x 8" x 2" square pan
9" x 2" round cake pan
9" x 5" x 3" loaf pan
9" x 9" x 1-1/2" square pan
9-1/4" x 2-3/4" ring mold
9-1/2" x 3-1/4" brioche pan
11" x 7" x 1-1/2" baking pan
9-cup Baking Dish or Pan:8" x 3" bundt pan
9" x 3" tube pan
10-cup Baking Dish or Pan:8" x 2-1/2" springform pan
9" x 9" x 2" square pan
11-3/4" x 7-1/2" x 1 3/4" baking pan
13" x 9" x 2" rectangular pan
15-1/2" x 10-1/2" x 1" jelly-roll pan
11-cup Baking Dish or Pan:9" x 3" springform pan
10" x 2" round cake pan
12-cup Baking Dish or Pan:2 (9") round cake pans
9" x 3" angel-cake pan or tube pan
10" x 2-1/2" springform pan
10" x 3-1/2" bundt pan
13" x 9" x 2" metal baking pan
14" x 10-1/2" x 2-1/2" roasting pan
15-cup Baking dish or Pan:13" x 9" x 2" rectangular pan
16-cup Baking dish or Pan:9" x 3-1/2" springform pan
10" x 4" fancy tube mold
18-cup Baking dish or Pan:10" x 4" angel-cake or tube pan

Can Sizes and Equivalents - Can Sizes by Weight and Number

Can SizeWeightCups
8 oz. can8 oz.1 Cup
Picnic10-1/2 to 12 oz.1-1/4 cups
12 oz. vacuum12 oz.1-1/2 cup
#111 oz.1-1/3 cups
#1 tall16 oz.2 cups
#1 square16 oz.2 cups
#21lb. 4oz.2-1/2 cups
#2.51lb. 13 oz.3-1/2 cups
#2-1/2 square31 oz.Scant 4 cups
#34 cups
#556 oz.7 cups
#106 lbs. 6 oz.12-3/4 cups
#30014 to 16 oz.1-3/4 cup
#30316 to 17 oz.2 cups
Baby food jar3-1/2 to 8 oz.depends on size
Condensed milk15 oz.1-1/3 cup
Evaporated milk14-1/2 oz.1-2/3 cup
Frozen juice Concentrate6 oz.3/4 cup

Food Storage - Shelf Life of Food - Refrigerator and Freezer Storage Chart

Room Temperature(70° F)Refrigerator (37° to 40° F)Freezer (0 °F)Comments
Breads, freshStore at room temperature. Use the date as a guide or use within 3 to 5 days.Storing in the refrigerator promotes staling.3 monthsOver wrap well to prevent drying out; thaw at room temperature
Bread and rolls, unbaked dough2 to 3 days2 monthsSometimes dough doesn't rise as well if frozen
Bread Crumbs and Croutons6 months
Muffins, rolls, quick breads3 days1 to 2 monthsWrap individually, pick in rigid containers to prevent crushing
Pancakes and waffles2 days1 monthFreeze with waxed paper between each two. Heat without thawing in a toaster or under broiler
Pastries, Danish, DoughnutsStore at room temperature.  Best used within 1 to 3 days3 months
Tortillas, corn or flour1 week3 monthsWrap well
Tube cans of rolls, biscuits, pizza dough, etc.Use-by-dateDon't freeze
Ready-to-bake pie crustUse-by-date2 months
Cookie doughUse-by-date unopened or opened2 months
Baked Goods
Room Temperature(70° F)Refrigerator (37° to 40° F)Freezer (0 °F)Comments
Angel food & sponge cakes3 days4 to 6 monthsWrap well
Cheesecake3 to 7 days4 to 6 monthsWrap well
Fruit cakes1 yearWrap well
Layer cakesStore at room temperature. Best used within 3 to 7 days2 to 4 monthsWrap well. Butter frosting freezes well, fluffy egg white frostings don't
Cookies, homemade and baked2 to 3 weeks4 to 6 monthsPack in airtight container
Cookies, store bought and packaged2 months8 to 12 months
Cookies, unbaked dough2 to 3 days6 monthsForm refrigerator dough cookies in rolls; wrap tightly, thaw in refrigerator before slicing or dropping on cookie sheets
Chiffon pie, Pumpkin pie2 to 3 days1 month
Cream and Custard Pies2 to 3 days6 months
Fruit pies, baked2 to 3 days6 to 8 monthsWrap well; thaw at room temperature; heat in 350 degree F. oven about 15 minutes
Fruit pies, unbaked8 monthsCut holes in upper crust to vent; bake unthawed
Pies, starch-thickened custard1 to 2 daysDo not freezeFillings become watery and lumpy and pastry becomes soggy
Pies, nut, baked4 to 5 days6 monthsWrap well
Pie shells, unbaked1 day2 monthsFit in pie pans; prick crusts. Stack pie pans with 2 layers freezer paper between. Place in freezer bags. Either bake frozen or thaw in refrigerator
Quiche2 to 3 days6 months
Dairy Products
Room Temperature(70° F)Refrigerator (37° to 40° F)Freezer (0 °F)Comments
Butterunopened - 1 to 3 months
opened - 2 to 3 weeks
9 monthsLeave in original wrapping; overwrap well
Margarine, Spread substitutesunopened - 4 to 5 months
opened - 1 month
1 year
Cheese, Hard (such as Cheddar, Swiss)unopened - 6 months,6 monthsIt is recommended that you don't freeze cheese! Freezing destroys the character of the cheese

If you do freeze, the cheese is best used in cooking; will crumble when sliced; thaw in refrigerator to minimize crumbling. Repackage in freezer bags
Cheese, parmesan, gratedopened - 3 to 4 weeks1 to 2 months
Cheese Soft (such as Brie, camembert)1 week6 months
Cottage Cheese, Ricotta Cheeseunopened - 45 to 60 days
opened - 1 week
Doesn't freeze wellSeparates, becomes grainy
Cream CheeseNever expose cream cheese to room temperature for more than 2 hours or 1 hour at 90° F or higher.2 weeksDoesn't freeze wellCan be mixed with other ingredients and frozen; by itself becomes crumbly.
Cream-Whipped, ultra-pasteurized

1 monthDoesn't freezeFreeze small mounds of lightly sweetened whipped cream on cookie sheet; then repackage so the mounds won't be crushed; thaw in refrigerator or serve frozen.

Texture changes
Cream-Whipped, Sweetened

1 day1 to 2 months
Cream-Aerosol can, real whipped cream

3 to 4 weeksDoesn't freeze
Cream-Aerosol can, non dairy topping

3 monthsDoesn't freeze
Cream, Half and Half3 to 4 days4 months
Eggnog, commercial3 to 5 days6 months
Ice Creams, SorbetsCan't Refrigerate1 to 2 monthsOverwrap to prevent ice crystals, freezer burn
Milk: Whole, Reduced & Low Fat, & Fat Free7 days1 monthAllow room for expansion in freezer container; thaw in refrigerator. Freezing affects flavor and appearance; use in cooking and baking.
Milk Substitutes: Soy, Rice, and Almondunopened - 85 days
opened - 7 to 10 days
3 months
Buttermilk, fresh2 weeks3 months
Milk condensed/cannedunopened - 12 to 23 monthsopened - 8 to 20 daysInvert cans every 2 months.
Milk, evaporated/cannedunopened - 12 to 23 monthsopened - 8 to 20 days
Milk Dry/Powderedunopened - 12 to 23 monthsopened - 8 to 20 daysStore in airtight container.
Buttermilk, powdered3 to 5 years
PuddingPackage date2 days after openingDoesn't freezeCan separate
Sour cream7 to 21 daysDoesn't freezeSeparates when thawed
Yogurt7 to 14 days1 to 2 monthsTexture changes
Room Temperature(70° F)Refrigerator (37° to 40° F)Freezer (0 °F)Comments
Fresh, in shell3 to 5 weeksDon't freezeShells break; eggs lose quality
Raw whites2 to 4 days1 yearGently stir whites together; freeze in ice cube trays; remove blocks to plastic freezer bag when solid. Each contains about 2 tablespoons. 1 cube - 1 egg white.
Raw yolks1 weekDon't freeze wellYolks can clump
Hard cooked eggs1 weekDon't freeze wellWhites become rubbery; water separates
Liquid pasteurized eggs, egg substitutes,opened - 3 days
unopened - 10 days
Doesn't freeze well
1 year
If opened, read label instructions regarding freezing.Freeze if unopened.
Mayonnaise, commercial, refrigerate after openingunopened - 2 to 3 monthsunopened - 1 year
opened - 2 months
Doesn't freeze
Fruit, Fresh
Room Temperature(70° F)Refrigerator (37° to 40° F)Freezer (0 °F)Comments
Commercially Frozen Fruits1 year
Canned Fruitsunopened - 12 to 24 months
opened - 2 to 3 days
Do not store in opened can. Store in airtight container.
Dried fruits6 monthscooked - 3 to 5 daysKeep cool, in airtight container; if possible, refrigerate
Apples3 to 5 months
Apricots, grapes, nectarines, peaches, pears, plums3 to 5 days6 monthsSee preserving instructions for individual fruits
Avocados2 to 3 days after ripened5 to 10 days
BananasStore at room temperatureFreeze whole in skin or peel and mash; great in breads and cakes
Berries, cherries2 to 3 daysFreeze individually on cookie sheets; repackage in heavy plastic bags
Cranberries3 to 4 weeks8 to 12 months
Grapefruit7 days2 weeks4 to 6 monthsWrap cut surfaces to prevent loss of Vitamin C.
Grapes1 to 2 weeks
Guavas, papayas1 to 2 days
Kiwi Fruit3 to 5 days after ripening4 to 6 months if unripe.
Lemons1 week2 to 5 weeks
Limes1 week2 to 5 weeks
Melons1 week8 to 12 monthsWrap cut surfaces to prevent Vitamin C loss, control odors.
Oranges3 to 4 days5 to 6 weeks
PeachesRipen at room temperature2 to 3 days
Pineapple1 to 2 days3 to 5 days
Tangerines2 to 3 days1 week
WatermelonUncut watermelon can be stored at room temperature for a few days6 to 8 days
Fruit Beverages
Juices in cartons, fruit drinks, punchunopened - 3 weeks
opened - 7 to 10 days
8 to 12 months
Deli & Vacuum-Packed Products
Room Temperature(70° F)Refrigerator (37° to 40° F)Freezer (0 °F)Comments
Store-prepared (or homemade) egg, chicken, ham, tuna, macaroni salads3 to 5 daysDoesn't freeze well
Hot dogs & Luncheon Meats
Hot dogsunopened - 2 weeks
opened - 1 week
1 to 2 months
1 to 2 months
Changes texture, flavor
Changes texture, flavor
Luncheon meatsunopened - 2 weeks
opened - 3 to 5 days
1 to 2 months
1 to 2 months
These lose flavor quickly; wrap tightly
These lose flavor quickly; wrap tightly
Bacon & Sausage
Bacon and pancetta7 days1 monthLeave unopened in original wrapping; over wrap well
Sausage, fresh; raw from chicken, turkey, pork, beef1 to 2 days1 to 2 monthsOver wrap packages well
Smoked breakfast links, patties7 days1 to 2 monthsOver wrap packages well
Hard sausage--pepperoni, jerky sticks2 to 3 weeks1 to 2 monthsKeep in original packaging; over wrap well
Summer sausage--labeled "Keep Refrigerated"unopened - 3 months
opened - 3 weeks
1 to 2 months
1 to 2 months
Ham, Corned Beef
Corned beef, in pouch with pickling juices5 to 7 daysDrained, 1 month
Ham, canned--labeled "Keep Refrigerated"unopened - 6 to 9 months
opened - 3 to 5 days
1 to 2 months
Doesn't freeze
Ham, fully cooked vacuum sealed at plant, undated, unopened2 weeks1 to 2 months
Ham, fully cooked vacuum sealed at plant, dated, unopened"use by" date on package1 to 2 months
Ham, fully cooked, whole7 days1 to 2 months
Ham, fully cooked, half3 to 5 days1 to 2 months
Ham, fully cooked, slices3 to 4 days1 to 2 months
Hamburger, Ground
Hamburger, ground beef1 to 2 days3 to 4 monthsRemove from supermarket wrapping; wrap well in freezer plastic wrap; over wrap with heavy-duty aluminum foil
Ground turkey, veal, pork, lamb & mixtures of them1 to 2 days3 to 4 monthsRemove from supermarket wrapping; wrap well in freezer plastic wrap; over wrap with heavy-duty aluminum foil
Fresh Beef, Veal, Lamb, Pork
Steaks3 to 5 days6 to 12 monthsWrap pieces individually, then over wrap tightly
Chops3 to 5 days4 to 6 monthsWrap pieces individually, then over wrap tightly
Roasts3 to 5 days4 to 12 monthsWrap pieces individually, then over wrap tightly
Variety meats--tongue, liver, heart, kidneys, chitterlings1 to 2 days3 to 4 months
Pre-stuffed, uncooked pork chops, lamb chops, or chicken breast stuffed with dressing1 dayDoes not freeze well
Soup & Stews
Chili4 to 6 monthsAll-meat chili freezes better than those containing beans, which can break down & become mushy
Soups, broth-based3 to 4 days4 monthsFreeze in usable amounts or individual servings
Soups, cream-based, such as chowders, bisques2 daysDo not freezeCan curdle and separate
Stock3 to 4 days4 to 6 monthsFreeze in usable amounts
Stews3 to 4 days4 to 6 monthsFreeze in usable amounts
Meat Leftovers
Cooked meat and meat casseroles3 to 4 days2 to 3 months
Gravy and meat broth1 to 2 days2 to 3 months
Fresh Poultry
Chicken, turkey, or duck, whole1 to 2 days1 yearKeep in original packaging
Chicken or turkey, pieces1 to 2 days9 monthsOver wrap well
Giblets1 to 2 days3 to 4 months
Cooked Poultry
Fried chicken3 to 4 days4 months
Cooked poultry casseroles3 to 4 days4 to 6 months
Pieces, plain3 to 4 days4 monthsBest frozen in stock, used in soups, casseroles
Pieces covered with broth, gravy1 to 2 days6 months
Chicken nuggets, patties1 to 2 days1 to 3 months
Pizza3 to 4 days1 to 2 months
Stuffing, cooked3 to 4 days1 month
Seafood and Fish
Lean fish (cod, flounder, haddock, sole, etc.)1 to 2 days6 monthsremove from light supermarket wrap; wrap well or use ice method below.
Fatty fish (salmon, bluefish, mackerel, salmon, etc.)1 to 2 days2 to 3 monthsPlace on cookie sheet, loosely covered with foil. Freeze. Dip in water several times; freeze to form thin ice glaze; wrap well; over wrap well
Cooked fish3 to 4 days4 to 6 monthsTexture becomes mushy
Smoked fish14 days or date on vacuum package2 months in vacuum packageVacuum package
Clams, oysters, scallops; live7 to 10 daysRemove from shells; freeze in their own liquid in airtight plastic freezer bags or containers; raw scallops easily become rubbery
Cooked shellfish3 to 4 days3 months
Crab, cooked1 to 2 days2 monthsIf in shell, leave in shell; dip in water and freeze to form thin ice glaze to prevent drying out and becoming stringy; then repackage
Fish Sticks18 months
Lobster tails, raw3 monthsOver wrap original wrapping well
Lobster & Crab, livesame day purchased
Shrimp, crayfish, squid, shucked clams, & mussels; raw1 to 2 days3 to 6 monthsDip in water, freeze, to form ice glaze; place in freezer plastic bags
Shrimp, cookedDon't freezeTexture becomes mushy
Shrimp, breaded, commercial1 year
Staples or Pantry Items
Staples or Pantry ItemsRoom Temperature(70° F)Refrigerator (37° to 40° F)Freezer (0 °F)Comments
Baby Food, cannedunopened - 12 months
opened - 2 days
Baking Powderunopened - 18 months
opened - 6 months
Keep dry and covered.
Baking Sodaunopened - 2 years
opened - 6 months
Keep dry and covered.
Barbecue Sauceunopened - 1 yearopened - 6 months
Biscuit Mix12 to 18 months
Bouillon Cubes or Granules2 yearsKeep dry and covered.
Brownie Mix9 to 12 months
Cake Mix9 to 12 months
Candies2 to 4 months6 monthsChocolate-coated varieties may develop white bloom on outside from temperature; thaw in refrigerator
Catsup/Ketchup, Chili Sauce, Cocktail Sauceunopened - 12 months
opened - 1 month
Refrigerate for longer storage
Cereals, ready-to-eat6 to 12 months
(opened & unopened)
Refold package liner tightly after opening
Chili Powder6 months
Chocolatesemi-sweet, 18 months
unsweetened, 18 months
Keep in a cool place
Chocolate Syrup2 years, unopenedopened - 6 monthsCover tightly and refrigerate after opening
Cocoa Mixesunopened - 8 months
opened - 3 to 6 months
Cover tightly
Cocoa, Baking24 months
Coconut, shredded (canned or packaged)unopened - 1 yearopened - 6 monthsRefrigerate after opening
Coffee, cansunopened - 2 yearsStoring coffee at room temperature is the most convenient method of storage. It works well for coffee that will be consumed within one to two weeks of purchase.
Coffee, instantunopened - 1 to 2 years
opened - 2 months
Coffee, whole bans1 to 2 weeks
Cornmeal18 monthsKeep tightly closed
CornstarchIndefiniteKeep tightly closed
Crackers6 months3 monthsFreeze "sleeves" in heavy plastic bags
Flour, white6 to 8 months1 year1 to 2 yearsStore in refrigerator
Flour, whole wheat6 months1 year1 to 2 years
Flour, bread6 to 8 months1 year
Gelatin, all types18 monthsKeep in original containers
Grits12 monthsStore in airtight container
Herbs, dried6 to 12 months1 to 2 years
Herbs, fresh1 week
Honey12 months (unopened and opened)Cover tightly. If crystallizes, warm jar in pan of hot water
Horseradishunopened - 1 year4 to 6 months
Hot Sauce3 years
Jelly, Jam & Preservesunopened - 12 monthsopened - 6 monthsRefrigerate after opening
Maple Syrup1 year, unopened3 years, opened
Marshmallow Creamunopened - 3 to 4 months
Marshmallows2 to 3 monthsKeep in airtight container
Mayonnaiseunopened - 2 to 3 monthsopened - 2 to 3 monthsRefrigerate after opening
Molassesunopened - 12 months
opened - 6 months
Keep tightly closed. Refrigerate to extend storage life.
Mustard, prepared yellowunopened - 2 years
opened - 6 to 8 months
May be refrigerated. Stir before using.
Nuts (Nuts; hazelnuts, walnut, pecans), in shell4 months1 year2 yearsRefrigerate after shelling. Freeze for longer storage.
Nuts, vacuum can3 months
Olives, bottled or canned1 year
Pancake Mixes6 to 9 months
Pasta (dry spaghetti, macaroni, etc.)2 yearsOnce opened, store in airtight container
Peanut Butterunopened - 6 to 9 months
opened - 2 to 3 months
Refrigeration not necessary, but will keep longer if refrigerated.
Pectin, liquidopened - 1 month
unopened - 1 year
Pectin, dry1 year
Picklesunopened - 1 to 2 years
Pie Crust Mixunopened - 8 months
Popcorn1 to 2 yearsKeep in airtight container
Potatoes, Instant6 to 12 months
Pudding Mixes12 months
Rice, white2 years +Keep tightly closed
Rice, flavored or herb6 months
Salad Dressings, bottledunopened - 10 to 12 months
opened - 3 months
Refrigerate after opening
Salad Oils (corn, canola)18 months
Olive Oil24 months
Sauces & Gravy Mixes6 to 12 months
Shorteningunopened - 18 months
opened - 6 to 8 months
Spices, whole1 to 2 years2 to 3 years1 to 2 yearsStore in airtight container in a dry place.
Spices, ground6 to 12 months
Sugar, granulated2 years +Put in airtight container and cover tightly
Sugar, brown4 months
Sugar, confectioners or powdered18 months
Sugar, sweeteners2 years +
Syrups12 monthsKeep tightly closed. Refrigerate to extend storage life.
Tea, bags18 monthsStore in airtight container
Tea, instant3 years
Tea, loose2 years
Tofu1 week5 monthsChange storage water every day or two after opening.
Vanilla Extractunopened - 2 years
opened - 2 months
Keep tightly closed
Vinegarunopened - 2 years
opened - 12 months
Keep tightly closed and store in a cool, dark area.
Yeast, dry or frozen compressedPackage expiration date1 to 2 years
Vacuum-sealed bagIndefinitely
VegetablesRoom Temperature(70° F)Refrigerator (37° to 40° F)Freezer (0 °F)Comments
Commercially Frozen8 to 12 monthsStore in original package
Canned Vegetables1 year3 to 5 days, openedDo not store in the opened can. Store in airtight container.
Artichokes1 week
Asparagus3 to 5 days8 to 12 months
Beets, carrots2 weeks8 to 12 months
Beans, broccoli, lima beans, peas, summer squash3 to 6 days8 to 12 months
Bell Peppers1 to 2 weeks3 to 4 monthsFreeze raw, slice in strips or dice
Cabbage1 weekDo not freezeTo watery to freeze well
Cauliflower1 week8 to 12 months
Celery, chilies1 week8 to 12 months
CornUse immediately for best flavor8 to 12 months
Garlic bulbs3 to 4 monthsYou can freeze whole, unpeeled heads and remove cloves as you need themStore in a cool, dark, and dry location (dampness is the enemy of garlic, so store away from stove and sink).
Garlic cloves, individual5 to 10 days
Green onions3 to 5 daysDo not freezeBecome limp
Greens: collards, kale, mustard, spinach, Swiss chard3 to 5 days8 to 12 months
Green beans1 week8 to 12 months
Lettuce and salad greens1 weekDo not freezeToo watery; becomes limp
Mushrooms1 to 2 days8 to 12 monthsSlice thinly and saute first, otherwise they become rubbery and lose flavor
Radishes2 weeks
Squash, hard3 to 6 months
Tomatoes3 to 4 monthsCut in wedges, freeze in usable portions in freezer bags. Use in cooked dishes.

Non-Alcoholic Substitutions

AmarettoNon-Alcoholic almond extract. Substitute 1/4 to 1/2 teaspoon almond extract for 2 tablespoons Amaretto.
AnisetteAnise Italian soda syrup or fennel. Also use the herbs anise or fennel.
Apple BrandyApple juice, unsweetened apple juice concentrate, apple cider, or apple butter. See brandy.
Apricot BrandySyrup from a can of apricots in heavy syrup, or apricot preserves.
Beer or AleChicken broth, beef broth, mushroom broth, white grape juice, or ginger ale.
Bourbon1 1/2 to 2 teaspoons of non-alcoholic vanilla extract.
BrandyWater, white grape juice, apple cider or apple juice, diluted peach or apricot syrups. Substitute equal amounts of liquid.
CalvadosApple juice, unsweetened apple juice concentrate, apple cider, or apple butter.
ChambordRaspberry juice, syrup or extract.
ChampagneGinger ale, sparkling apple cider, sparkling cranberry juice, or sparkling white grape juice.
Cherry Liqueur or Cherry BrandySyrup from a can of cherries in heavy syrup, or cherry Italian soda Syria or cherry preserves.
ClaretNon-alcoholic wine, diluted grape juice or cherry cider syrup.
Coffee LiqueurTo replace 2 tablespoons of liqueur, use 1/2 to 1 teaspoon of chocolate extract mixed with 1 teaspoon of instant coffee, which has been mixed in 2 tablespoons of water. Can also substitute expresso, non-alcoholic coffee extract, or coffee syrup.
CognacJuice from peaches, apricots, or pears.
CointreauOrange juice or frozen orange juice concentrate.
Crème de CacaoPowdered white chocolate combined with water, or non-alcoholic vanilla extract and powdered sugar.
Crème de CassisBlackcurrant Italian soda syrup or blackcurrant jam.
Crème de MentheSpearmint extract or oil of spearmint diluted with a little water or grapefruit juice.
CuracaoTo replace 2 tablespoons of liqueur, use 2 tablespoons of orange juice concentrate or 2 tablespoons of orange juice with 1/2 teaspoon of orange extract.
FramboiseRaspberry juice or raspberry syrup.
FrangelicoHazelnut or almond extract.
GallianoLicorice extract.
GewurztraminerWhite grape juice combined with lemon juice.
Grand Marnier or Orange-Flavored LiqueurUnsweetened orange juice concentrate or orange juice. Substitute 2 tablespoons unsweetened orange juice concentrate or 2 tablespoons orange juice and 1/2 teaspoon orange extract for 2 tablespoons Grand Marnier.
GrappaGrape juice.
GrenadineNon-alcoholic grenadine or pomegranate syrup.
Hard CiderApple juice or apple cider.
Kahlua – Coffee or chocolate-flavored liqueur.Substitute 1/2 to 1 teaspoon chocolate extract or substitute 1/2 to 1 teaspoon instant coffee in 2 tablespoons water for 2 tablespoons Kahlua.
KirschSyrup or juices from cherries, raspberries, boysenberries, currants, or cider. Substitute equal amounts of liquid.
Licorice or Anise LiqueurAnise Italian soda syrup or fennel.
Marsala1/4 cup of grape juice plus 1 teaspoon of fruity vinegar.
MirinWhite grape juice combined with lemon juice or lemon zest.
MuscatWhite grape juice combined with powdered sugar.
OuzoAnise Italian soda syrup or fennel. Peppermint Schnapps – Non-alcoholic mint or peppermint extract, mint Italian soda syrup, or mint leaves.
Orange LiqueurOrange juice concentrate, orange juice, orange zest or orange marmalade.Peach Brandy – Syrup from a can of peaches in heavy syrup, or peach preserves.
Peppermint SchnappsNon-alcoholic mint or peppermint extract, mint Italian soda syrup, or mint leaves.
Port Wine, Sweet Sherry, or Fruit-Flavored LiqueurOrange juice or apple juice. Substitute equal amount of liquid.
Red BurgundyRed wine vinegar, grape juice or non-alcoholic wine.
Red WineSweet or dry non-alcoholic wine with a tablespoon of vinegar added to cut the sweetness, grape juice, cranberry juice, grape jelly, tomato juice, beef broth, liquid drained from vegetables, or water. Use equal amounts of liquid as called for in the recipe.
Rum (light or dark)Water, white grape juice, pineapple juice, apple juice or apple cider, or syrup flavored with almond extract. Substitute equal amounts of liquid.
Red WineRed grape juice, cranberry juice, chicken broth, beef broth, vegetable broth, clam juice, fruit juices, flavored vinegar. (Substitute an equal amount of liquid.)
RieslingWhite grape juice with a pinch of powdered sugar added.
SakeRice vinegar.
SambucaAnise Italian soda syrup or fennel.
SavoryThyme, marjoram, or sage.
SchnappsTo replace 2 tablespoons of schnapps, add 1 teaspoon of a corresponding flavored extract.
Sherry or BourbonOrange or pineapple juices, peach syrup, or non-alcoholic vanilla extract. Substitute equal amount of liquid 1 to 2 teaspoons vanilla extract.
Southern ComfortPeach flavored nectar combined with a small amount of cider vinegar.
Sparkling WineGinger ale, sparkling apple cider, sparkling cranberry juice, or sparkling white grape juice.
TequilaCactus juice or nectar.
Triple SecOrange juice concentrate, orange juice, orange zest or orange marmalade.
Vermouth, DryWhite grape juice, white wine vinegar, or non-alcoholic white wine.
Vermouth, SweetApple juice, grape juice, balsamic vinegar, non-alcoholic sweet wine, or water with lemon juice.
VodkaWhite grape juice or apple cider combined with lime juice or use plain water in place of the vodka.
WhiskeyIf a small amount is called for, it can be eliminated.
White BurgundyNon-alcoholic wine, white grape juice combined with white wine vinegar.
White WineSweet or dry non-alcoholic wine with a tablespoon of vinegar added to cut the sweetness, white grape juice, apple juice, apple cider, tomato juice, chicken broth, liquid drained from vegetables, ginger ale, or water. Use equal amounts of liquid as called for in the recipe.
White Wine, SweetWhite grape juice plus 1 tablespoon Karo corn syrup. (Substitute an equal amount of liquid.)

Oven Temperatures

Fahrenheit (Degrees)CelsiusGas Mark (Imperial)Description
2251051/3very cool
3251653very moderate
4002006moderately hot
4752459very hot

Water Temperatures

Internal Core TemperatureDescription:
Tepid Water85 to 105 degrees F. 29 to 40 degrees C.Water is comparable to the temperature of the human body.
Warm Water115 to 120 degrees F. 46 to 48 degrees C.Water is touchable but not hot.
Hot Water130 to 135 degrees F. 54 to 57 degrees C.Water too hot too touch.
Poach160 to 180 degrees F. 71 to 82 degrees C.Poaching is “to cook an item by submerging it in a liquid that is just barely simmering.” Poaching is not a rolling boil. Poaching, compared to boiling, is a much gentler technique.
Simmer185 to 200 degrees F. 85 to 93 degrees C.A simmer is sometimes called a “gentle boil.” Small bubbles periodically rise to the surface – the gentler and slower the bubbles, the lower the temperature.
Low Simmer180 degrees F. 82 degrees C.
Slow Boil205 degrees F. 96 degrees C.There is more movement and noticeably larger bubbles than simmering.
Rolling Boil212 degrees F. 100 degrees C.The water is rolling, bubbling, and steaming. High Altitude: Each 500 foot increase in altitude will cause a drop of approximately one (1) degree in the boiling point.

Baked Goods - Internal Temperatures

Internal Core TemperatureInternal Description
BreadsInsert the thermometer from the side of the bread. If the bread is in a loaf pan, insert it just above the edge of the pan directing it at a downward angle.
Quick Breads (Breads, Muffins and Cornbread)200 degrees F. 93 degrees C.
Yeast Breads200 to 210 degrees F. 93 to 99 degrees C.
Soft Breads/Dinner Rolls180 to 190 degrees F. 82 to 88 degrees C.
Scones200 degrees F. 93 degrees C.
Sourdough BreadsSourdough Breads200 to 210 degrees F. 93 to 99 degrees C.
Cinnamon Rolls190 to 200 degrees F. 87 to 93 degrees C.
Water temperature to add yeast105 to 115 degrees F. 41 to 46 degrees C.
Cakes - Cupcakes205 to 209 degrees F. 93 to 98 degrees C.Insert thermometer in the center of the cake.
Carrot Cake205 to 209 degrees F. 93 to 98 degrees C.Remember: The cooking process continues even after you remove the cake out of the oven. As the cake cools, the residual heat on the surface slowly penetrates to the middle.
Clafouti (with fruit)160 degrees F. 71 degrees C.
Devil's Food Cake - Red Velvet Cake205 degrees F. 93 degrees C.
Molton Chocolate Cakes160 degrees F. 71 degrees C.
Pound Cake210 to 212 degrees F. 99 to 100 degrees C.
Tres Leches Cake, Three-Milk Cake200 degrees F. 93 degrees C.
Upside-Down Cakes190 to 200 degrees F 88 to 93 degrees C.
CheesecakeWhen the internal temperature of a cheesecake rises beyond 160 degrees F. (71 degrees C.) while baking, it will always crack. To prevent this from happening, Take it out of the oven when the cheesecake reaches 150 degrees F. (65 degrees C.) at the center to avoid over baking.
PiesInsert thermometer a couple inches in from the edge of the pie.
Chocolate Cream Pie165 degrees F. 74 degrees C.
Custard Pie - Cream Pies170 to 175 degrees F. 76 to 79 degrees C.Bake until the custard has set around edges but jiggles slightly in the center when tapped on the side with a wooden spoon.
Fruit Pies (Blueberry, Blackberry, etc.)175 degrees F. 79 degrees C.Fruit pies should be juicy and bubbling all over, especially in its center. The pie needs to bubble if it contains a starch thickener, otherwise the starch is not going to thicken.
Pecan Pie200 degrees F. 93 degrees C.
Pumpkin Pie175 degrees F. 79 degrees C.
Sweet Potato Pie175 degrees F. 79 degrees C.
Meringue Pies160 to 165 degrees F. 71 to 74 degrees C.
Puddings and Custards:Insert thermometer in the centers. Begin checking temperature about 5 minutes before recommended time.
Bread Pudding160 degrees F. 71 degrees C.
Creme Brulee170 to 175 degrees F. 76 to 79 degrees C.
Baked Custard (Old Fashion)160 degrees F. 71 degrees C.
Flan170 to 175 degrees F. 76 to 79 degrees C.

Candy Sugar Syrup

Internal Core TemperatureDescription:
Thread Stage230 to 235 degrees F. 110 to 112 degrees C.Syrup and Binding agent for fruit pastes:A spoonful of sugar drizzled over a plate forms a fine, thin thread. This stage makes a syrup, not a candy.
Soft-ball Stage235 to 240 degrees F. 112 to 116 degrees C.Fudge, Fondant, Creams, Penuche, Maple, etc:When a small amount of sugar syrup is dropped into very cold water, it forms a ball that does not hold its shape when pressed with your fingers.
Firm-ball Stage244 to 248 degrees F. 118 to 120 degrees C.Caramels and Divinity:When a small amount of sugar syrup is dropped into very cold water, it forms a ball that holds its shape, but it still sticky, when pressed with your fingers.
Hard-ball Stage250 to 266 degrees F. 121 to 130 degrees C.Taffy and MarshmallowsWhen a small amount of sugar syrup is dropped into very cold water, it forms a ball that holds its shape but is pliable.
Soft-crack Stage270 to 290 degrees F. 132 to 143 degrees C.Butterscotch and Toffee:When a small amount of sugar syrup is dropped into very cold water, it scan be stretched between your fingers and separates into hard but not brittle threads.
Hard-crack Stage300 to 310 degrees F. 149 to 154 degrees C.Brittles and Lollipops:When a small amount of sugar syrup is dropped into very cold water, it will solidify but will separates into hard brittle threads.
Light Caramel Stage320 to 335 degrees F. 160 to 170 degrees C.Glazes, coating agentPoured onto a white plate the syrup will be honey-golden in color.
Dark Caramel StageUp to 350 degrees F. 177 degrees C. Watch carefully as any temperature above 350 degrees F. begins to burn the sugar and it will develop a bitter, burnt taste.Glazes, coating agentPoured onto a white plate the syrup will be deep reddish amber in color

Vegetables Internal Temperatures

Internal Core TemperatureDescription
Baked Potato210 to 212 degrees F. 98 to 100 degrees C.Potatoes are done if tender when pierced with a fork and the internal temperature reached.
Boiled Whole Potato200 degrees F. 93 degrees C.

Beef Veal Lamb Internal Temperatures

Degree of DonenessInternal Core TemperatureInternal Description
Extra-rare or Blue (bleu)80 to 100 degrees F 26 to 38 degrees Cdeep red color and barely warmfeels soft and squishy
Rare120 to 125 degrees F 49 to 51 degrees Ccenter is bright red, pinkish toward the exterior portion, and warm throughoutsoft to touch
Medium Rare130 to 135 degrees F 55 to 57 degrees Ccenter is very pink, slightly brown toward the exterior portion, and slightly hotyields only slightly to the touch, beginning to firm up
Medium140 to 145 degrees F 60 to 63 degrees Ccenter is light pink, outer portion is brown, and hot throughoutyields only slightly to the touch, beginning to firm up
Medium Well150 to 155 degrees F 65 to 69 degrees Cmostly gray-brown throughout with a hint of pink in the centerfirm to touch
Well Done160 degrees F and above 71 degrees Csteak is uniformly brown or grey throughoutfirm or hard to touch
Brisket165 to 175 degrees F 74 to 79 degrees CIf the meat pulls apart easily, the brisket is ready to serve.
Pot Roast180 degrees F 82 degrees CIf the meat pulls apart easily, the pot roast is ready to serve. Also called fork tender.
Ground MeatPatties - Meatloaf - Meatballs160 to 165 degrees F 71 to 74 degrees CFor hamburger patties, insert the digital food thermometer through the side of the patty, all the way to the middle .

Fish Seafood Internal Temperatures

Internal Core TemperatureInternal Description
FishWhole - Steaks - FilletsFish is slightly translucent and flakes easily,
Salmon130 to 135 degrees F. 54 to 57 degrees C.Salmon has almost do collagen. This means it will start to lose moisture more quickly than beef.
Halibut -Cod- Red Snapper- Sea Bass-Tilapia130 to 135 degrees F. 54 to 57 degrees C.
Trout135 to 140 degrees F. 57 to 60 degrees C.
Tuna - Swordfish - Marlin125 degrees F. 51 degrees C.Cook Tuna until medium-rare (do not overcook or the meat will become dry and lose its flavor)
Ahi Tuna (Sashimi grade)115 to 120 degrees F. 46 to 49 degrees C.Ahi Tuna is most often served rare or seared rare. This is because the longer you cook it, the more flavor and moisture it loses. Sashimi grade tuna has been flash frozen to kill any parasites.
Shrimp120 degrees F. 49 degrees C.Cook until medium-rare and the shrimp just start to turn pink (do not overcook or the shrimp will become dry and lose its flavor).
Medium-size, boiling3 to 4 minutes
Large-size, boiling5 to 7 minutes
Jumbo-size, boiling7 to 8 minutes
Lobster145 degrees F. 62 degrees C.Place thermometer in the tail to check the internal temperature. Lobster requires a high temperature than other fish since its muscle fibers are longer and require more heat to shrink.
Boiled or Steamed, whole Lobster145 degrees F. 62 degrees C.
Grilled Lobster145 degrees F. 62 degrees C.
Baked, Grilled or Broiled Lobster Tail - each140 degrees F. 60 degrees C.Shell cut - piggyback lobster tail (lobster meat is exposed).
Scallops120 degrees F. 49 degrees C.Sear, bake, or broil each side for approximately 4 minutes or until an instant-read cooking or meat thermometerinserted into their centers reach 115 degrees F. Remove from heat. The carryover cooking will add another 10 to 15 degrees, for an ideal final temperature of 125 to 130 degrees F. They should also have lost their translucence and turn opaque.
Clams - Mussels - OystersCook clams, mussels, and oysters until their shells just open. Throw away the ones that do not open.
Crab Cakes150 to 155 degrees F. 65 to 68 degrees C.

Pork Internal Temperatures

Internal Core TemperatureInternal Description
Medium140 to 145 degrees F. 60 to 63 degrees C.pale pink center
Well Done160 degrees F. and abovesteak is uniformly brown throughout
Pork ribs Pork shoulders Brisket180 to 200 degrees F. 82 to 93 degrees C. 195 to 200 degrees F. 90 to 93 degrees C. 195 to 200 degrees F. 90 to 93 degrees C.Pale white to tan. Cooked medium to well done
Raw Sausage160 degrees F. 71 degrees longer pink
Sausage (pre-cooked)140 degrees F. 60 degrees C.
Raw Ham160 degrees F. 71 degrees C.
Pre-cooked Ham140 degrees F. 60 degrees C.

Poultry Internal Temperatures

Internal Core TemperatureInternal Description
Whole Chicken or Duck160 to 165 degrees F. 71 to 74 degrees C.Insert it in the inner thigh area near the breast of the bird, but not touching the bone. Cook until juices run clear
Dark meat160 to 165 degrees F. 71 to 74 degrees C.
Breast meat160 to 165 degrees F. 71 to 74 degrees C.
Thighs, Wings, and Legs160 to 165 degrees F. 71 to 74 degrees C.
Whole Turkey - Oven Roasted Turkey Deep Fried or Cajun Fried Turkey165 degrees F. 74 degrees C. 170 degrees F. (in the breast) 76 degrees C.Juices run clear and leg moves easily.
Ground Poultry(Chicken and Turkey)160 to 165 degrees F. 71 to 74 degrees C.For patties, insert the digital food thermometer through the side of the patty, all the way to the middle.
Turkey Stuffing (cooked alone or in turkey)165 degrees F. 74 degrees C.For the stuffing inside of a turkey, duck, or chicken: place the thermometer to the center of the stuffing.

Miscellaneous Internal Temperatures

Internal Core TemperatureDescription
Casseroles and Leftovers165 to 175 degrees F. 74 to 79 degrees C.Insert thermometer in the center. Some times the 165 degrees F. temperature only warms the casserole, and may not be not enough for you. Then continue until 175 degrees F. is reached.
Sauces using eggs: Hollandaise Sauce160 degrees F. 150 degrees F.As raw eggs carries a risk of salmonella infection. Heat the sauce to 160 degrees F. on your digital thermometer to kill bacteria.
Egg Dishes Sauces using eggs:160 degrees F. 71 degrees C.When eggs are part of the recipe it is necessary that the internal temperature of the baking item reach at least 160 degrees F. (71 degrees C.) in order to kill any dangerous bacteria.
Egg Nog and Ice Cream Custard160 to 165 degrees F. 71 to 74 degrees C.
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